DNA Testing Services
Jennings Smith’s forensics laboratory partner is accredited by the Forensic Quality Services – International division of the National Forensic Science and Technology Center (NFSTC), which inspects U.S. laboratories for adherence to standards set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the DNA Advisory Board (established by the Director of the FBI). It complies with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and Forensic Requirements for Accreditation (FRA 1 and FRA 2).
Jennings Smith’s forensics laboratory partner applies state-of-the-art technology to obtain accurate results in the area of forensics and general bodily fluid identification. Our lab technicians use the latest technology – Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Short Tandem Repeats (STR) and real-time PCR – to identify and test DNA and analyze the results.
The following kits and instrumentation are utilized in our laboratory so that we can provide our clients with the most accurate and reliable results and quick turnaround times:
- Quantifiler?Human and Quantifiler? Male DNA Quantification Kit
Through Quantifiler? kits we are able to determine with a high degree of accuracy, whether DNA is present in a sample and at what quantity and where it is from a male.
- AmpFLSTR® Identifiler®, Profiler Plus/COfiler and Promega PowerPlex 16® PCR Amplification Kits
The method of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows the analyst to copy (amplify) very specific sections of the chromosome resulting in over a million fold increase in the amount of that specific region of interest. The AmpFLSTR® PCR Amplification Kits are utilized to simultaneously amplify at least the 13 core FBI National Database loci plus the Amelogenin gender determining marker.
- Applied Biosystems 3130 Genetic Analyzer
Sequencing and fragment analysis runs are carried out with minimal amounts of DNA. The multi-Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) instrument separates the amplified DNA fragments by size. In combination with the size standard, it allows accurate sizing of the fragments, which are subsequently compared to the allelic ladder to determine the fragment allele.
- GeneMapper® Software
Once the DNA has been run through the AB 3130 the raw data must be processed. This is accomplished using GeneMapper ID software, automated genotyping software designed specifically for AmpFLSTR data analysis that can flag quality issues that might appear with the samples. This raw data can also be analyzed using GeneScan and Genotyper software.
DNA Case Analysis
Each case analysis will involve at a minimum STR DNA testing for Amelogenin and the standard 13 core loci – FGA, vWA, D3S1358, CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1, D18S51, D21S11, D8S1179, D7S820, D13S317, D5S818, and D16S539. Semen samples will be tested using a differential extraction technique to separate male and female DNA contributors. All testing will be performed using Applied Biosystems Profiler Plus? kit, COfiler? kit, or Identifiler? kit specified by your laboratory. All analyses will be performed on Applied Biosystems Genetic Analyzers utilizing capillary electrophoresis technology. Only Applied Biosystems supported software will be used in data analysis.
Bodily Fluid Identification (Serology)
The process of identification by DNA profiling is based on the testing of DNA molecules in bodily tissues and bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, and semen. Sufficient quantities of DNA for profiling can be extracted from minute traces of human biological material. Because DNA is the same in all cells of the body, profiles obtained from different types of samples at different times and in different places can be compared to determine whether they may have come from the same person.
Bodily tissues or fluids of unknown origin can come from a number of items including clothes, bed sheets, undergarments, discarded bathroom tissues, bath towels, carpet, couch cushions, condoms and feminine products, and can be identifiable for years as dried stains. These samples are then compared with the DNA profile obtained from a sample of bodily tissue or fluid of known origin. With accurate tests and if the profiles match, a conclusion is drawn as to whether the tissue or fluid of unknown origin could come from the same person that provided the tissue or fluid of known origin. Examples of DNA profiling cases with the use of human biological samples include:
- Sexual Assault
Forensic Laboratory Testing Methodology
Test for presence of Biological Fluids on just about anything: clothing, bed sheets, swabs, food, etc. We test for the following fluids:
- Commonly tested items: Panties, Men’s Underwear, Sheets, Wash Cloths, Swabs Taken From Car Seats.
- The test will determine if the item submitted contains sperm cells.
- NOTE: Semen can discharge from the vaginal cavity for up to 7 days after sex, depending on the menstrual cycle.
- Saliva (Amalyse Test)
- Commonly tested items: Panties, Front of Men’s Underwear.
- The test will determine if the item submitted contains saliva.
- The test will confirm if the item submitted contains white blood cells.
Final Case Report
The Final Case Report will be made available via a secure Internet connection immediately upon completion of the DNA forensic analysis. At the end of each month we will send one package that will contain a printed copy of the Case report for each batch of cases completed during the month.
Y Chromosome STR Testing
Y- STRs are Short Tandem Repeats found on the male-specific Y Chromosome. The coding genes, mostly found on the short arm of the Y Chromosome, are vital to male sex determination, spermatogenesis and other male related functions. The Y-STRs are polymorphic among unrelated males and are inherited through the paternal line with little change through generations.
Y-STRs are commonly used to examine sexual assault evidence. In a sexual assault case, evidence such as vaginal swabs will contain both female and male DNA. Differential extraction is often used to separate the male component from the female component. More often, however, the male and female components cannot be separated completely. When the “male DNA sample” undergoes the PCR amplification process, the female DNA component is amplified as well, sometimes masking the male DNA, which makes analysis difficult. As a result, the female component could exist prominently even in the male component after separation.
Masking does not occur when Y-STRs are examined. Since there is no Y-STR in the female evidence, the only contribution of Y-STR can only come from the assailant(s) in a sexual assault case. The male component will be easily detected, since only this part of DNA will be amplified. The Y-STR system is especially helpful when there are more than one assailant. The mixed pattern in the evidence can help to identify those males responsible for the assault.
Y-STR is also used for non-sexual assault cases where mixed samples are collected from evidence. Sometimes, regular STR will cause the masking effect if there is a very small quantity of male DNA in the mixed sample. Performing Y-STR testing can help to identify all males who have contributed to the evidence.
Generally speaking, the Y-STR is more sensitive than the regular STR test. This means that if we are unable to obtain a full profile from the regular STR test, but we are able to detect the presence of the Y Chromosome, then it is likely that a full profile would be obtained in a Y-STR test.
We conduct genetic testing for parentage, siblingship, grandparent/aunt/uncle relationships and twin zygosity. These test results are used in areas such as the determination of familial relationships, immigration and adoption.
Our specialists have over 25 years experience in DNA testing and we will provide you with accurate and reliable results, as well as utmost professionalism and confidentiality.
Because we do all testing in-house and we have equipped ourselves with the most up-to-date technology, we are able to offer you the most accurate results at affordable prices.
The collection of DNA samples is done by simply swabbing the inside of the cheeks.
Jennings Smith’s Laboratory partner has more than 25 years experience in forensic serology and DNA analysis. Our experts are Board Certified Criminalists and have testified over 400 times in state, federal and international courts of law.
DNA Identity Analysis – Civil Cases
Jennings Smith’s Laboratory partner provides analysis of DNA or untested biological fluids and preparation of evidence for civil case depositions, hearings and trials in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and throughout the United States.
We provide customized training sessions to meet your individual needs. Let us know what you have in mind.
Do you have a case that requires DNA Testing and/or Forensic Laboratory Services? If so, please contact us e-mail or call us at 866-629-3757 to set up a meeting to discuss our ability to assist you.
We look forward to hearing from you.